Richard Griffiths - Lecture
An excellent introduction to Design Rationale is the entry by Simon Buckingham
Shum in “The Encyclopaedia of Computer Science and Technology”, available
by FTP in Acrobat format [Buckingham Shum
a]. The material presented during the lecture is explained more
fully there, and you are recommended to read it.
Advantages of design rational use
These points are taken from [Dix et al.].
Communication mechanism among design team to communicate past critical
decisions, what alternatives were investigated, and the reason for the
Transfer of design knowledge between projects with similar rationales (i.e.,
in my view, patterns).
Encourages deliberation and explicit consideration of alternatives.
Classification of design rationale systems
These classifications are due to [Lee and Lai].
Process-oriented design rationale: Historical records of design decisions,
used during the actual design discussions.
Structure-oriented design rationale: Concerned with the structure
of the space of all design alternatives, which may be constructed by post
hoc consideration of the design process.
Psychological design rationale: Not covered here.
Process-oriented design rationale
Most work in this area is based on Horst Rittel’s, 1970s Issue-Based Information
System, IBIS, [Rittel & Webber] in which
the design is documented as a hierarchical structure.
The primitives of this system are;
Issues: questions that the design or argument is addressing.
Positions: potential resolutions of an issue.
Arguments: that support or refute a position.
The system starts from a root issue, and expands to generate sub-issues
as it develops.
An introduction to IBIS, can be seen at: [Conklin].
Conklin and Yakemovic subsequently produced a graphical version called
gIBIS. Issues, positions and arguments are nodes in the directed
graph, and the connections between them are labelled to depict the relationship
between connected nodes.
This is available as a commercial product: QuestMap, from Conklin’s
company, Group Decision Support Systems. A description of it can
be seen at: http://www.gdss.com/Questmap/aboutQM.htm
Structure-oriented design rationale
Also referred to as design space analysis, involves the post hoc (after
the event) reconstruction of the space of design alternatives and options
that were considered during the project.
Examples of systems developed to facilitate this process include;
the Questions, Options and Criteria (QOC) notation, and Decision Representation
Language (DRL). A paper comparing these methods with IBIS,
can be seen at [Stumpf].
Questions, Options and Criteria (QOC)
This system, known as Design Space Analysis, developed by MacLean, Young,
Bellotti and Moran, is described at: [Bellotti
Decision Representation Language (DRL)
An abstract of a paper introducing DRL by Jintae Lee, can be seen at:
Also, DRL is described in the paper, [Buckingham
Bellotti, V. & MacLean, A. Design
Space Analysis (DSA). Viewd at: http://www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/amodeus/summaries/DSAsummary.html
Buckingham Shum, S. 1996.
Design Argumentation as Design Rationale. In The Encyclopaedia of
Computer Science and Technology, Marcel Dekker Inc: NY, Vol 35 Supp. 20,
95-128. Viewed at: ftp://kmi-ftp.open.ac.uk/pub/simonb/ecst96.pdf
Buckingham Shum, S. 1996. Negotiating
the Construction of Organisational Memory Using Hypermedia Argument Spaces.
Workshop on Knowledge Media for Improving Organisational Expertise, 1st
International Conference on Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management,
Basel, Switzerland, 30-31 October 1996. Viewed at: http://kmi.open.ac.uk/~simonb/org-knowledge/pakm96/negotiating/negotiating.html
Conklin, J. 1998. The IBIS Manual:
A Short Course in IBIS Methodology. Viewed at: http://www.gdss.com/IBIS.htm
Dix, A., Finlay, J., Abowd, G. & Beale, R.
1998. Human-Computer Interaction (Second Edition). Prentice
Lee, J. SIBYL: A Tool for Managing Group
Decision Rationale. Viewed at: http://tools.texas-one.org/EI/ICEIMT/archive/abstracts/sibyl.abstract
Lee, J. & Lai, K.-Y. 1991. What's
in Design Rationale? Human-Computer Interaction special issue on
design rationale 6(3-4) pp. 251-280 .
Rittel, H., and M. Webber, 1973 "Dilemmas
in a General Theory of Planning" pp 155-169, Policy Sciences, Vol. 4, Elsevier
Scientific Publishing Company, Inc. Amsterdam.
Stumpf, S. 1998. Argumentation-based
Rationale - The Sharpest Tools in the Box. http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/S.Stumpf/IN9801.html
This page is maintained by Richard
Griffiths and does not necessarily reflect the official position of
the University of Brighton.